Exploitation of fractured shale oil resources by cyclic CO2 injection
英文关键词:CO2-enhanced oil recovery, Huff-n-puff, Shale oil reservoirs, Recovery simulation
基金项目:This work was supported by the Science Foundation of China University of Petroleum-Beijing at Karamay (No. KL01JB201700003) and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Tianchi 100 Talent Plan which is highly appreciated. We greatly appreciate the detailed and valuable comments from two anonymous referees.
Tao Wan Faculty of Petroleum, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Karamay 834000, China 
Hong-Xian Liu Faculty of Petroleum, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Karamay 834000, China 
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      With shale oil reservoir pressure depletion and recovery of hydrocarbons from formations, the fracture apertures and conductivity are subject to reduction due to the interaction between stress effects and proppants. Suppose most of the proppants were concentrated in dominant fractures rather than sparsely allocated in the fracture network, the fracture conductivity would be less influenced by the induced stress effect. However, the merit of uniformly distributed proppants in the fracture network is that it increases the contact area for the injection gas with the shale matrix. In this paper, we address the question whether we should exploit or confine the fracture complexity for CO2-EOR in shale oil reservoirs. Two proppant transport scenarios were simulated in this paper: Case 1—the proppant is uniformly distributed in the complex fracture system, propagating a partially propped or un-propped fracture network; Case 2—the proppant primarily settles in simple planar fractures. A series of sensitivity studies of the fracture conductivity were performed to investigate the conductivity requirements in order to more efficiently produce from the shale reservoirs. Our simulation results in this paper show the potential of CO2 huff-n-puff to improve oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs. Simulation results indicate that the ultra-low permeability shales require an interconnected fracture network to maximize shale oil recovery in a reasonable time period. The well productivity of a fracture network with a conductivity of 4 mD ft achieves a better performance than that of planar fractures with an infinite conductivity. However, when the conductivity of fracture networks is inadequate, the planar fracture treatment design maybe a favorable choice. The available literature provides limited information on the relationship between fracture treatment design and the applicability of CO2 huff-n-puff in very low permeability shale formations. Very limited field test or laboratory data are available on the investigation of conductivity requirements for cyclic CO2 injection in shale oil reservoirs. In the context of CO2 huff-n-puff EOR, the effect of fracture complexity on well productivity was examined by simulation approaches.
Tao Wan,Hong-Xian Liu,2018.Exploitation of fractured shale oil resources by cyclic CO2 injection.Petroleum Science,15(3):552~563.
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